The EU, Artificial Military Intelligence and Autonomous Lethal Weapons

By Federico Santopinto, Senior Research Fellow, IRIS 

Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionise global military affairs, just as the atomic bomb did in the mid-20th century. How is the European Union (EU) positioning itself in this context? What approach has it adopted to lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in particular?

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« Wartime Economy »: From Buzzword to Reality? Changes in European Defence Industrial Strategies since February 2022

By Gaspard Schnitzler, Senior Research Fellow and Head of the Defence and Security Industry Programme, IRIS

This note assesses the main changes in defence industrial strategies that have taken place since February 2022 in four European countries: France, Germany, Italy, and the UK.

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[Comment] France’s Perception of the EU Defence Industrial « Toolbox »

By Jean-Pierre Maulny, Deputy Director, IRIS

After reminding the historical main lines of French defence procurement policy and French defence industrial strategy, Jean-Pierre Maulny underlines that the EU defence industrial toolbox must be built in complementarity between the various stakeholders, i.e., the European Commission, the European Defence Agency, the Member States, as well as with the EDTIB.

FranceMore about ARES Group

[Comment] What future European Defence and Technological Industrial Basis (EDTIB) do we want/need? The Romanian case

By Raluca Csernatoni, Research Fellow at Carnegie Europe

This paper analyses the impact of the war in Ukraine on Romanian’s defence industrial policy and vision of the future of the EDTIB.

RomanianSwedenBelgiumGermanyItalyMore about ARES Group

Solar Geoengineering: Geostrategic and Defence issues

By Marine de Guglielmo Weber, Sofia Kabbej with the collaboration of Laura Hebbel Boutang for The Defence & Climate Observatory coordinated by IRIS under the contract carried out on behalf of the French Ministry of the Armed Forces’ DGRIS.

Techniques and their recent developments highlight the prospect of large-scale deployment of solar geoengineering over the coming decades. It therefore seems necessary to explore the security and strategic issues raised by these techniques, which this note sets out to do in four stages: a presentation of the techniques studied and the associated natural and human risks; an analysis of the geostrategic and defence issues they raise; four hypotheses, and three prospective scenarios narrating the deployment of solar geoengineering techniques by 2050, together with recommendations for the Ministry of Defence.

Read the noteSynthesisFrench version More information about the Observatory

[Policy paper] The Impact of the War in Ukraine on the European Defense Market

By Jean-Pierre Maulny, Deputy Director, IRIS

This note offers an analysis of the consequences of the war in Ukraine on the structuring of the defence market in Europe.

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[Working paper] Case Studies of the EU’s Actions in the Field of Conflict Resolution, Prevention and Mediation

By Federico Santopinto, Louise Souverbie, Gustavo Müller, Gustavo Ramírez Buchheister, Ester Sabatino & Cornelius Adebahr

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Analyses
Energy and the Environment
Geopolitics of Metals: A Strategic Chessboard
The ecological and digital transition requires high metal consumption. In this respect, the economic and geopolitical reshaping of the markets for metallic raw materials bears witness to the strategic...
Humanitarian and Development
Gaza: a Humanitarian Emergency
  While Israeli bombardments have killed more than 30,000 people in the Gaza Strip, the Palestinian population is also having to cope with the heavy humanitarian consequences of the...
Asia
Japan and South Korea Rapprochement : What Implications for the Indo-Pacific Region ?
Webconference organised around the topic : The rapprochement between Japan and South Korean and strategic implications for the Indo-Pacific. Guest speakers : Narushige MICHISHITA , Professor, Executive Vice President,...
Publications
Americas
Democracy, Stability and Domestic Policy in the 2024 American Election
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Security
« Wartime Economy »: From Buzzword to Reality? Changes in European Defence Industrial Strategies since February 2022
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Americas
The 2024 presidential election: the stakes could not be greater
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the Mediterranean region
The 2024 presidential election: the stakes could not be greater
Read
Americas
Soft power and the American climacteric
Read
Ares Group
Romania’s Perception of the EU Defence Industrial « Toolbox »
ARES Group #95 - Comment
What future European Defence and Technological Industrial Basis (EDTIB) do we want/need? The Romanian case
ARES Group #93 - Comment
What future European Defence and Technological Industrial Basis (EDTIB) do we want/need? The Swedish case
ARES Group #92 - Comment
Germany’s Perception of the EU Defence Industrial « Toolbox »
ARES Group #91 - Comment
What future European Defence and Technological Industrial Basis (EDTIB) do we want/need? The Belgian case
ARES Group #90 - Comment
Spain’s Perception of the EU Defence Industrial « Toolbox »
ARES Group #89 - Comment
Italy’s Perception of the EU Defence Industrial « Toolbox »
ARES Group #87 - Comment
Sweden’s Perception of the EU Defence Industrial « Toolbox »
ARES Group #86 - Comment
What future European Defence and Technological Industrial Basis (EDTIB) do we want/need? The German case
ARES Group #85 - Comment
What future European Defence and Technological Industrial Basis (EDTIB) do we want/need? The Italian case
ARES Group #84 - Comment
Russia’s war against Ukraine: A new impetus for the harmonisation of European arms export policies? A trilateral perspective from France, Germany, and Sweden
ARES Group #83 - Policy Paper
Critical technologies and industrial capabilities: National definition and policy implications. The case of Baltic States
ARES Group #79 - Policy paper
Critical technologies and industrial capabilities: National definition and policy implications. The French case
ARES Group #78 - Comment
Critical technologies and industrial capabilities: National definition and policy implications. The UK case
ARES Group #77 - Comment
Critical technologies and industrial capabilities: National definition and policy implications. The Spanish case
ARES Group #76 - Comment
Critical technologies and industrial capabilities: National definition and policy implications. The Italian case
ARES Group #75 - Comment
To face the Russian threat, Europeans need to spend together – not side by side
English VersionFrench VersionSpanish Version
EU Civil-Defence Synergies: Understanding the Challenges and Drivers of Change
Ares Group #74 - Policy Paper
Defence innovation: New models and procurement implications. The Polish Case
Ares Group #73 - Policy Paper
Defence innovation: New models and procurement implications. The Estonian Case
Ares Group #71 - Policy Paper
The European Defence Fund and Space: Added Values and Priorities
Ares #69 - Policy Paper
Defence Innovation: New Models and Procurement Implications. The German Case
Ares #68 - Policy Paper
Defence Innovation: New Models and Procurement Implications. The British Case
Ares #67 - Policy Paper
Defence Innovation: New Models and Procurement Implications. The Finnish Case
Ares #65 - Policy Paper
Defence Innovation: New Models and Procurement Implications. The Italian Case
Ares #64 - Policy Paper
Defence Innovation: New Models and Procurement Implications. The Spanish Case
Ares #62 - Policy Paper
National Expectations regarding the European Defence Fund: The Greek Perspective
Ares #61 - Comment
The (R)evolution of Defence Innovation Models: Rationales and Consequences
Ares #60 - Policy Paper
Armament and Transatlantic Relationships: The Danish Perspective
Ares #59 - Comment
Comparative Chart of Measures developed by countries to support their DTIB in Covid-19 Time
Comparative Chart
Covid-19 and the American Defence Technological and Industrial Base: Impact and Policy Responses
Ares #57 - Comment
Covid-19 and the Spanish Defence Technological and Industrial Base: Impact and Policy Responses
Ares #56 - Comment
Covid-19 and the German Defence Technological and Industrial Base: Impact and Policy Responses
Ares #55 - Comment
Covid-19 and the Italian Defence Technological and Industrial Base: Impact and Policy Responses
Ares #54 - Comment
Covid-19 and the Dutch Defence Technological and Industrial Base: Impact and Policy Responses
Ares #53 - Comment
National Expectations regarding the European Defence Fund: The Finnish Perspective
Ares #52 - Comment
Armament and Transatlantic Relationships: the Romanian perspective
Ares Group #51 - Comment
Armament and Transatlantic Relationships: the Italian perspective
Ares Group #50 - Comment
National expectations regarding the European Defence Fund: The Danish Perspective
Ares Group #49 - Comment
European Defence should not be the Casualty of the ‘Great Lockdown’
English VersionFrench VersionGerman Version
The European Defence Fund: a Game Changer for European Defence Industrial Collaboration
Ares Group #48 - Policy Paper
Armament and Transatlantic Relationships: The Baltic States Perspective
Ares Group #47 - Comment
National expectations regarding the European Defence Fund: The Polish Perspective
Ares Group #46 - Comment
Armament and Transatlantic Relationships: The German Perspective
Ares Group #45 - Comment
Armament and Transatlantic Relationships: The Dutch Perspective
Ares Group #43 - Comment
National expectations regarding the European Defence Fund: The Italian Perspective
Ares Group #42 - Comment
National expectations regarding the European Defence Fund: The Swedish Perspective
Ares Group #41 - Comment
National expectations regarding the European Defence Fund: The Spanish Perspective
Ares Group #40 - Comment
PeSCo: The Swedish Perspective
Ares Group #38 - Policy Paper
PeSCo: The German Perspective
Ares Group #36 - Policy Paper
PeSCo: The Cyprus Perspective
Ares Group #35 - Policy Paper
PeSCo: The Greek Perspective
Ares Group #34 - Policy Paper
PeSCo: The Belgian Perspective
Ares Group #33 - Policy Paper
PeSCo: The Polish Perspective
Ares #32 - Policy Paper
Defence Industrial Policy in Serbia: Drivers and Influence
Ares #31 - Policy Paper
PeSCo: The Italian Perspective
Ares #30 - Policy Paper
PeSCo: The Lithuanian Perspective
#29 - Policy Paper
PeSCo: The Dutch Perspective
#28 - Policy Paper
PeSCo: The Spanish Perspective
#27 - Policy Paper
Building the EDTIB beyond 2020
ARES Seminar Report
Defence Industrial Policy in Norway: Drivers and Influence
#25 - Policy Paper
The Relationship between Prime contractors and SMEs. How to Best Manage and Fund Cooperative Programmes
#24 - Policy Paper
Defence industrial Policy in Finland. Drivers and Influence
#23 - Policy Paper
European preference, Strategic autonomy and the European Defence Fund
#22 - Report
Defence industrial links between the EU and the US
#20 - Report
The Impact of Brexit on the European Armament Industry
#19 - Report
Defence and Industrial Policy in Poland
#18 - Policy Paper
Eu Regulatory Incentives for Armament Cooperation: Lessons from directive 2009/81/EC
#17 - Comment
Promoting European Defence Cooperation and the Promise of Financial Incentives
#16 - Comment
The Economics of European Defence: Some Additional Insights
#15 - Comment
Deploying Financial Tools in Support of European Defence Cooperation
#14 - Comment
Defence and Industrial Policy in Slovakia and the Czech Republic
#12 - Policy Paper
The Economics of European Defence
#11 - Comment
Technological Innovation, the US Third Offset Strategy and the Future Transatlantic Defense
#9 - Policy PaperAbout #9 and #10 Ares Group's Policy Papers
The Eu’s Security of Supply Agenda
#6 - Comment
A European Drone by 2025? The View from Spain on EUROMALE
#3 - Comment
A European Drone by 2025? The View from Italy on EUROMALE
#2 - Comment
A ‘Game Changer’? The EU’S Preparatory Action on Defence Research
#1 - Policy Paper
Armament Industry Research Group: Presentation
Launching Paper
Press Release
 Experts
Arnaud Dubien
Associate Research Fellow
Russia/CIS
Jean-Joseph Boillot
Associate Research Fellow
Indian Economy – Economy of the emerging countries – Asia/Africa Relations
Marine de Guglielmo Weber
Research Fellow
Strategic and security issues related to climate change - Geoengineering - Weather modification - Food and agricultural issues - Information and communication issues
Frédéric Jeannin
Research Fellow
Geopolitics of nuclear power - Geopolitics of energy - Low-carbon technologies - Raw materials
Julien Laurent
Associate Research Fellow
Energy markets and international relations - Strategies of energy actors (companies, states) - Finance and geopolitics
Teva Meyer
Associate Research Fellow
Nuclear energy – Nuclear weapons – Proliferation – Energy technologies – Energy transitions
Francis Laloupo
Associate Research Fellow
Geopolitics of Africa - Tools and mechanisms of crisis resolution - Emerging conflicts
Marianne Péron-Doise
Associate Research Fellow, Director of the Indo-Pacific Geopolitical Observatory
Strategic issues and alliances in Asia - Maritime security - Indo-Pacific - Defense and security policy in North-East Asia (Japan-Korea)
Emmanuel Lincot
Associate Research Fellow
Political and Cultural History of Contemporary China - China / Middle East Relationships - China / Central Asia Relationships - China / France Relationships - Geopolitics of the arts, archaeology and heritage
Luca Baccarini
Associate Research Fellow
World Energy Markets – Energy strategy: key actors and roles - European Energy Policy in EU - Finance and geopolitics
Charles Thibout
Associate Research Fellow
GAFAM and BATX - Digital - Companies and States - Dual technologies
Éric Mottet
Senior Research Fellow
Geopolitical and geoeconomic issues in South-East and North-East Asia - Indo-Pacific
Serge Michailof
Associate Research Fellow
Development of the so-called “fragile countries” – Post conflict reconstruction
Laurent Giacobbi
Associate Research Fellow
Latin America and the Caribbean (geopolitics, defence and security, foreign influences) - Strategic issues linked to climate change
Jacques Serba
Associate Research Fellow
Humanitarian action – Organisation and functioning of the NGOs – External action of the territorial authorities
Pierrick Le Jeune
Associate Research Fellow
Asia, South-East Asia – Afghanistan – The reform of public administrations – Public services – NGOs
Olivier Da Lage
Associate Research Fellow
The Arabian Peninsula - India
Fabrice Debbasch
Associate Research Fellow
Innovation of defense systems - Scientific Issues - New technologies
Fatou Elise Ba
Research Fellow, Head of the Humanitarian and Development Programme
International Aid - Advocacy and Humanitarian Policies - Human Rights - Gender and Development
Anne Sénéquier
Research Fellow
Global Health - Health and international cooperation - Health and Environnement
Emmanuel Hache
Senior Research Fellow
Natural Resources Economics – Energy issues and Development - Asia and NIC – International Monetary Affairs
Guillaume Long
Associate Research Fellow
Latin American politics, regionalism and security - Contemporary multilateralism
Jean-Marc Vigilant
Associate Research Fellow
Defence policy - NATO - External operations - New technologies
Julia Tasse
Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Climate, Energy and Security Programme
Climate change - Oceans and marine environments - Marine economy
Nathalie Ernoult
Research Fellow
Humanitarianism - Global Health
Brahim Oumansour
Associate Research Fellow, Director of the Maghreb Observatory
US foreign policy in the Middle East and North Africa - Conflict, State and non-governmental players in North Africa and the Middle East
Gaëtan Gorce
Associate Research Fellow, co-head of the International Crimes Observatory
Contemporary issues faced by Europe (migratory flows, digital sovereignty...) - International employment laws
Sofia Kabbej
Associate Research Fellow
Climat – Security – Risk prevention – International climate negociations – Governance of geoengineering
Marine Simoën
Associate Research Fellow
Natural Resources Economics – Raw materials – Renewable energy
Sami Ramdani
Research Fellow at IRIS
Energy security – Russia – Central and Eastern Europe
Jean-Yves Camus
Associate Research Fellow
Zionism and anti-Zionism in contemporary Europe – Regional identities and separatisms in Europe – The relations between the French and the Israeli – The German left and the Middle-East conflict – Nationalisms and extremisms in Europe
David Rigoulet-Roze
Associate Research Fellow
South West Asia - Near and Middle East - Levant - Mesopotamia - Arabian Peninsula - Gulf Region
Noémie Rebière
Associate Research Fellow
Energy security - Energy and defence - Resilience and critical infrastructure - Turkey, European Union - Mediterranean, Middle East, Central Asia
Frédéric Mauro
Associate Research Fellow
European Defence Policy - PESCO
Marie-Cécile Naves
Senior Research Fellow
Unites States of America - Gender, equality woman-men, feminism - Socio-political issues of sport
Caroline Roussy
Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Africa/s Programme
West Africa – Regional Integration – Border issues – G5-Sahel
Sébastien Abis
Associate Research Fellow
Strategic issues in the Mediterranean and North Africa – European Neighbourhood Policy - Agriculture and globalization – Food security and geopolitics of food supply – Grain Trade
Jeff Hawkins
Associate Research Fellow, US Ambassador (ret.)
US Foreign Policy
Assen Slim
Associate Research Fellow
The European economic integration and common policies – The post socialist transition in Eastern Europe – Sustainable development and degrowth – The economy of gratuity
Barthélémy Courmont
Senior Research Fellow, Head of Asia-Pacific Programme
The Political and Security Stakes in North-East Asia - The China's Power Strategy - The American Foreign Policy – The American Policy in Asia Pacific – Nuclear Issues – New Threats
Philippe Steininger
Associate Research Fellow
Defence Policy - Nuclear Detterence - Aerospace issues – Military Programming and Operations – Aerospace Strategy
Jean-Marc Gravellini
Associate Research Fellow
Security and development issues in Sahel - Strategy - Development of public policies and investment programmes
Patrick Chevallereau
Associate Research Fellow
Defence policy – Transatlantic relationship – NATO – Franco-British cooperation – Brexit – European defence – United States’ policy and politics – Maritime strategy
Henry Zipper de Fabiani
Associate Research Fellow
Balkans - Central Asia
Denis Tersen
Associate Research Fellow
International Economics - International Trade - Globalisation
Olivier de France
Senior Research Fellow
Political Europe and geopolitics – International political theory
Jean-Pierre Maulny
Deputy Director
World arms industry - EDTIB - Arms transfers - Export control - CSDP - NATO - Defence and security issues - Strategic affairs
Federico Santopinto
Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Europe, Strategy and Security Programme
European Union - European Defence - Defence Industry
Jean-François Corty
Associate Research Fellow, in charge of the Rendez-vous de l'humanitaire
Humanitarian action - Development - Health - Health, social and environmental inequalities
Pascal Dupont
Associate Research Fellow
Aerospace Law - Public and European international Law - Defence - Security - Transport
Patrick Charaix
Associate Research Fellow
Defense policy - Nuclear deterrence - Crisis management and military planning - External operations - Leadership and management
Pim Verschuuren
Associate Research Fellow
Geopolitics of sports
Jean de Gliniasty
Senior Research Fellow
Russia - CIS - French Diplomacy
Christophe Ventura
Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Latin America/Caribbean programme
Latin America (political life, regional integration, foreign policy...) – Civil society and Social movements
Jacques-Pierre Gougeon
Senior Research Fellow
The German-speaking area – Germany’s place and policy within the European Union – The French-German relations - The evolution of Germany since the reunification
Romuald Sciora
Associate Research Fellow
United Nations - United States - Wokeism
Carole Gomez
Associate Research Fellow
International Sport Issues - Sport Diplomacy - Sport Integrity
Guillaume Pitron
Associate Research Fellow
Economic, political and environmental issues of raw materials – Impact of digital pollution
El Hadj Souleymane Gassama
Associate Research Fellow
Diaspora - Immigration - Françafrique - Decolonisation - Demography - Democracy - Money transfers - Donation - Debt - Identities - Childhood and feminism in Africa
François-Bernard Huyghe
Senior Research Fellow
Communications and economic intelligence – Cyber strategy - Terrorism
Gaspard Schnitzler
Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Defence and Security Industry Programme
European defence - Defence industrial policies - Defence industries - Arms exports - Defence policy of France and Germany - Strategic cultures - EU/NATO
Karim Émile Bitar
Associate Research Fellow
The Middle-East – The relations between islam and the Western world; politics and religion – The Franco-Arab relations and the Euro-Mediterranean stakes – The media in the Arab world, feminism and civil societies
Didier Billion
Deputy Director
The Middle-East – Turkey and the Turkish-speaking world – The European policy in these regions – The relations between the EU and Turkey – The European policy in the Middle-East
Jean-Vincent Brisset
Associate Research Fellow
China and the Chinese world – Strategic questions in Asia – Defence and international relations – The military tool: means, operations, concepts – The military nuclear weapons – Military aeronautics – NBCR risk and civil protection
Thierry Coville
Research Fellow
Iran – Country risk
Patrice Moyeuvre
Associate Research Fellow
Turkey - Turkish Defence and Armament Issues
Carlos Ominami Pascual
Associate Research Fellow, former Chilean Minister of the Economy
Latin American economy and finance, regional integration, foreign policy
Rémi Bourgeot
Associate Research Fellow
Economics, Globalisation, Finance, Europe, Middle-East, Asia, Energy, Industry
Sylvie Matelly
Former Deputy Director of IRIS
Military spendings and defence budgets – Arms industries and restructuration – Globalisation and economic and strategic relations – European economy, economic policies
Pierre Jaillet
Associate Research Fellow
Economy and monetary policy - European institutions and the functioning of the euro zone - Monetary and financial international relations - International cooperation bodies and organisations
Louise Souverbie
Research Fellow
European Union - Central and Eastern Europe - Defence Europe - Defence industry
Georges Lefeuvre
Associate Research Fellow
Afghanistan / Pakistan / India
Gérard Grizbec
Associate Research Fellow
Geopolitics of religions - Conflict zones
Jean-Claude Allard
Expert in defence and security policy
Defence and security policy – Operational concepts and the uses of force – Crisis management – Military aeronautics
Karim Pakzad
Associate Research Fellow
Afghanistan - Pakistan - Iran - Iraq – Kurdish issue
Jean-Paul Ghoneim
Associate Research Fellow
Gulf States
François Mabille
Associate Research Fellow, Director of the Geopolitical Observatory of Religion
Geopolitics of religions - Religious actors in international relations - Pontifical diplomacy - Radicalisation and religious risk
Éric Vernier
Associate Research Fellow
Money laundering – Business frauds – Sustainable development in the banking world
Francis Perrin
Senior Research Fellow
Energy issues – Markets and Energy Prices – Geopolitics of Energy - Energy and Governance
David Weinberger
Associate Research Fellow
Illicit drugs trafficking and its geopolitics - Money laundering and the funding of terrorism - Tobacco smuggling
Camille Boulenguer
Research Fellow
Industrial economy - Taxation - Illegal economy (tax evasion, money laundering, corruption) - Impact of new technologies on the economy (artificial intelligence, cryptocurrencies, robotics)
Éric Percheron
Associate Research Fellow
Compliance – Financial Security – Anti-money laundering – Cross border flows and country risks analysis
Émilie Laffiteau
Associate Research Fellow
Sub-Saharan Africa (macroeconomics analyzes and forecast, public statistics, regional integration, economic resilience) - Assessment of official development assistance (ODA)
Jean-Jacques Kourliandsky
Associate Research Fellow
Central and Latin America – External and security policies of the Ibero-American area
Pascal Boniface
Director of IRIS
Strategic issues – European security – Global power relationships – Nuclear issues – The French foreign policy
Lukas Aubin
Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Sport and Geopolitics Programme
Geopolitics of sports - Sports diplomacy - Nation Branding - Nation Building and Soft Power - Geopolitics of Russia - Asymmetric warfare, influence, relations within the post-Soviet space and sovereignty
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